The physical measuring principle of the Topsoil Mapper is electrical conductivity. Compared to conventional systems there are the following differences:
the TSM is a multi-coil system: 1 transmitting coil Tx with 4 receiving coils Rx
the TSM records soil parameters without touching the ground during a working cycle
the TSM is online-capable - i.e. soil parameters are immediately output and can be used for machine control.